交响乐欣赏(最强马勒十首交响曲欣赏指南)

交响乐欣赏

当前浏览器不支持播放音乐或语音,请在微信或其他浏览器中播放 Symphony No. 1 in D Major “Titan”: I. Langsam. Schleppend Czech Philharmonic Orchestra;Karel An?erl – Mahler: Symphony No. 1 “Titan”, Bruno Walter vs. Karel Ancerl (Compare 2 Versions) –> 当前浏览器不支持播放音乐或语音,请在微信或其他浏览器中播放 Symphony No. 1 in D Major “Titan”: II. Kr?ftig bewegt, doch nicht zu Schnell Czech Philharmonic Orchestra;Karel An?erl – Mahler: Symphony No. 1 “Titan”, Bruno Walter vs. Karel Ancerl (Compare 2 Versions) –> 当前浏览器不支持播放音乐或语音,请在微信或其他浏览器中播放 Symphony No. 1 in D Major “Titan”: III. Feierlich und gemessen, ohne zu schleppen Czech Philharmonic Orchestra;Karel An?erl – Mahler: Symphony No. 1 “Titan”, Bruno Walter vs. Karel Ancerl (Compare 2 Versions) –> 当前浏览器不支持播放音乐或语音,请在微信或其他浏览器中播放 Symphony No. 1 in D Major “Titan”: IV. Stürmisch bewegt Czech Philharmonic Orchestra;Karel An?erl – Mahler: Symphony No. 1 “Titan”, Bruno Walter vs. Karel Ancerl (Compare 2 Versions) –>
△马勒《第一交响曲“巨人”》△
马勒的交响曲:在线指南
Mahler’s Symphonies: an online guide
导言

To coincide with our forthcoming Mahler 2: Resurrection concert, we’ve created our own ‘field guide’ to Mahler’s Symphonies.Designed to increase your enjoyment of each concert – and impress others with your music knowledge! – you’ll find short, sharp notes about each work to give you plenty of talking points before and after the concert. 为配合即将演出的马勒《第二交响曲:复活》音乐会,我们编制了一份自己的马勒交响曲“生存指南”。这份指南意在增加您欣赏音乐会的乐趣,并且用您的音乐知识令他人钦佩!您会发现指南对于每首作品都有简短明确的注解,如此一来,在音乐会的前后,您就有许多谈资了。
No. 01
A cosmic force of nature and 
a vivid sunrise into 20th century music
《第一交响曲》:自然的宇宙力量和
昭示20世纪音乐的鲜活日出
Opening with shimmering ‘A’, played over seven octaves across the whole orchestra.The sound of street bands, klezmer music and Frere Jacque as a funeral march in the first movement以一个微微闪光的“A”启奏,整个乐队奏出的七个八度。第一乐章的街头乐队声响、犹太音乐以及作为葬礼进行曲的《雅克兄弟(两只老虎)》。
 
No. 02
A grand display of death and resurrection
《第二交响曲》:死亡和复活的盛大展现
 
Was one of the works chosen by the New York Philharmonic to perform at a concert commemorating the 10th anniversary of 9/11In a piece about the above concert, the Huffington Post described it as ‘a musical Everest, a benchmark, and a go-to piece for momentous occasions. It is simply one of the greatest works of art ever created, and it is exactly the music that we need to listen to right now. 《第二交响曲》是911事件十周年纪念音乐会曲目之一,由纽约爱乐演出。《赫芬顿邮报》一篇关于上述音乐会的评论,将此曲描述为“音乐的珠穆朗玛峰,一个基准,一个重大场合的指定作品。它跻身于人类创造过的伟大艺术品之列,并且正是我们此时此刻需要聆听的音乐……”…’Sir Andrew Davis: ‘The second symphony is already a big step up from the first and a much more ambitious project with chorus and solo singers, which of course had been initiated by Beethoven in the 9th Symphony. Mahler takes it to a much greater length for one thing and also with scope of it, ending in this great resurrection hymn is something that was very new at the time.’ 安德鲁·戴维斯爵士:“第二交响曲是经第一交响曲的初步探索之后迈出的一大步,更有野心,有合唱和独唱部分,当然这是由贝多芬在第九交响曲里尝试过的。马勒使这种形式上了一个高度,并以宏大的复活赞美诗结尾,这在当时是很新颖的。”A deliberate five minute pause between the first and second movements, in which Mahler invites us to ‘stare into the face of emptiness’.The Dies irae plainchant incorporated into the first movement, which ‘foretells the day of wrath, when heaven and earth are shaken and consumed by fire’.Horns performing offstage, from both sides of the wings, during the Finale, as well as the apocalyptic symbolism of this movement which features soloists, chorus and orchestra.Sometimes compared to:Beethoven’s Ninth.
 作者在第一和第二乐章之间留有五分钟的停顿,马勒以此邀请我们“凝视虚空的面庞”。第一乐章采用了《神怒之日》圣咏,圣咏预言在神震怒之日,天摇地动,一切毁于火焰。终章,圆号在舞台后部,从两翼奏响。这个象征启示录的乐章也突出了独奏、合唱和管弦乐队。有时会与贝多芬的第九交响曲相比较。
No. 03
A wildly expansive canvas of life and a musical reflection of nature
《第三交响曲》:极广阔的生命画卷以及对大自然的音乐呈现
 
Mahler said the entire symphony describes ‘all stages of evolution in a step-wise ascent. It begins with inanimate nature and ascends to the love of God.’ Sir Andrew Davis:* ‘The third is an enormous canvas, ending with the slow movement which was unheard of at the time.’It’s length – coming in at just over 90 minutes is long (almost double the normal Romantic symphony duration) with seven movements, instead of the standard four.The colossal first movement – comprises almost half of the work in duration.The fourth movement – built around a song from Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1892)马勒曾说,整部交响曲用逐步上升的形式描绘了演化的所有阶段,从无生命的自然发端,上升至上帝之爱。安德鲁·戴维斯爵士:“第三交响曲是一幅庞大的画卷,用慢速乐章结尾,在当时是个创举。”曲目时长超过90分钟(几乎是浪漫主义交响曲标准时长的两倍),有七个乐章,而不是标准的四个乐章。庞大的第一乐章几乎占了总时长的一半。第四乐章根据尼采1892年出版的《查拉图斯特拉如是说》中的一首歌写成。
No. 04
 An intimate description of heaven through the innocent eyes of a child
《第四交响曲》:以孩童般纯真的私人眼光刻画天堂
Considered the ‘happiest’ and most optimistic of Mahler’s works.Sir Andrew Davis: ‘The Fourth Symphony takes a step back to a rather more intimate world, with a singer singing one of the songs which is one of the most innocent, charming ideas of describing heaven through the eyes of a child. That kind of na?ve quality that makes it one of the most endearing of his symphonies.’
是马勒作品中“最幸福”以及最乐观的一部。安德鲁·戴维斯爵士:“第四交响曲退至一个更私人的境地,用一个歌手唱了一支至纯至真的歌,透过孩童的眼睛描绘天堂。这种天真的品质使这部交响曲成为马勒最受喜爱的交响曲之一。”Sleigh bells and lyrical melodies in first movement.A return to the traditional four movement form.A violin solo in the second movement, played on an instrument that is intentionally mistuned a tone higher than the rest of the orchestra. The solo was meant to represent death as a fiddle playing itinerant. The off tuning was used to create a peculiar, other-worldly, ‘danse macabre’. This technique is called scordatura(变格定弦).The exquisite final movement in which a soprano describes a child’s na?ve vision of heaven.Sometimes compared to:Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony第一乐章的雪橇铃铛和抒情旋律。回归了四个乐章的传统形式。第二乐章的小提琴独奏,此小提琴的弦特意定得比乐队高。此处的独奏代表死亡,弦乐演奏了巡回的旋律。刻意定高用以体现奇特的、超越俗世的“死亡之舞”。此技术即“变格定弦”。精致的终章用女高音描绘了孩子天真的眼中的天堂。有时会与贝多芬的《田园交响曲》相比较。
No. 05
A virtuosic orchestral portrayal of love
《第五交响曲》:艺术家之爱的交响肖像
First movement: begins with funeral music, featuring the summons of the single trumpet.The famous Adagietto (fourth movement) which is Mahler’s love letter to his new bride, Alma.Sometimes compared to:Beethoven’s Eroica.第一乐章:葬礼音乐起始,用一把小号召唤。著名的小柔板(第四乐章)是马勒写给他新娘阿尔玛的情书。有时会与贝多芬的《英雄交响曲》相比较。No. 06
An artist succumbing to the hammer blows of fate
《第六交响曲》:艺术家屈服于命运的锤击
Program annotators often comment on this symphony’s musical depiction of the ‘three blows of fate’ (see below) becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy in the compser’s own life. After this symphony was written, three tragic events happened: the composer’s eldest daughter died of diphtheria, he lost his post at the Vienna Opera, and he was diagnosed with a life-threatening heart condition.
节目评论家经常评注此曲中那“命运的三记重击”成了作曲家个人生活中实现了的预言。此曲写作完成后,三个悲剧性事件发生了:作曲家的大女儿死于白喉,他还失去了维也纳歌剧院的职位,并被诊断出患有严重的心脏病。The fact that these events took place three years after the composer wrote this work, has not dampened enthusiasm for the legend.Sir Andrew Davis: ‘The sixth is the only one of the Mahler symphonies that ends with a real sense of tragedy.’尽管这三件事是在作品完成三年之后才发生的,但并没有挫伤人们对这个传说的热情。安德鲁·戴维斯爵士:“第六交响曲是马勒的交响曲中唯一以真实的悲剧感结尾的。”Finale features the three famous ‘hammer strokes’ marking the final and tragic victory of fate, specified as a non-metallic thud, ‘like an axe stroke.’The soaring ‘Alma theme’, in the opening movement. He said to his wife later – ‘Whether or not I’ve succeeded, I don’t know; but you’ll have to put up with it.’终章有那三下著名的“锤击”,标志着命运最终取得的悲剧性胜利,刻意追求非金属的音色,“要像斧头砍下一般”。翱翔的“阿尔玛主题”,在第一乐章。马勒其后对他妻子说:“我不知道我是否成功了,总之你得忍受它。”
No. 07
The composer’s Song of the Night
《第七交响曲》:作曲家的夜之歌
Horns that open the second movement – described as ‘calling to each other across the mountain valleys.’A general rural mood, heightened by a gentle, rustic dance, woodwind birdcalls and the gentle clanking of distant cowbells.第二乐章的起始奏响小号,被描述为“穿过山谷时的互相呼喊”。乡村的情景,转为柔和的乡村之舞,木管奏出鸟鸣以及温和的,从远处传来的叮当作响的牛铃。Sir Andrew Davis: ‘The seventh which has sort of been the ugly duckling in some people’s eyes, but to me is a fascinating piece because it goes through a lot of different changes. The first movement is this epic, energetic struggle, there are two beautiful kind of nocturne movements [positioned on either side of the central Scherzo]. The last movement is kind of ‘schizophrenic’ but actually arrives at a positive conclusion that looks back on the earlier symphonies.’安德鲁·戴维斯爵士:“第七交响曲在某些人眼中有点像是丑小鸭,可对我来说极其迷人,因为全曲的变化非常多。第一乐章是史诗,有力的挣扎,两个美妙的夜曲乐章(中间隔着谐谑曲)。终章有点‘精神分裂’,不过也有着一个积极的结尾,回望了早期的那些交响曲。”
No. 08
An epic reflection of the universe giving voice to the planets
《第八交响曲》:行星们描述宇宙的叙事诗
Often referred to as the ‘Symphony of A Thousand’, a massive symphonic spectacle which stretched orchestral composition to the limit.Widely considered to represent the pinnacle of Romantic musical expression.Sir Andrew Davis: ‘The eighth is the great, monumental symphony of the thousands which requires enormous chorus’s and is one of the most ambitious ways of looking at a symphony… It’s not only monumental in its physical size in terms of the number of performers but also in a way that it takes the finale of the second symphony to another level.’常被称为《千人交响曲》,盛大的交响阵容,将为管弦乐队所写的作品推至极限。被广泛认为代表了浪漫主义音乐的顶峰。安德鲁·戴维斯爵士:“第八交响曲是众多交响曲中伟大而不朽的,要求人数庞大的合唱团,这是呈现交响乐的一种极有野心的方式。它不止是在人数编制上异乎寻常,也把第二交响曲的终章升到了另一个高度。”The huge number of performers on stage: the 1910 premiere of the work required 858 singers – including eight vocal soloists, two mixed choruses and a children’s choir – and 171 instrumentalists.Non –traditional instruments in the orchestra including the piano (in possibly its first appearance as part of the orchestra rather than as a soloist), harmonium, mandolin and organ.The text: first movement is devoted to the tenth-century hymn Veni, creator spiritus; the second, the final scene from Goethe’s verse drama Faust.舞台上庞大的演出人数:1910年首演时,调用了858名歌手——包括八个独唱家,两个混合合唱团和一个儿童唱诗班,再加上171名器乐演奏者。在管弦乐队中使用非传统乐器,包括钢琴(可能是第一次参与到管弦乐队中,而不是独奏),小风琴,曼陀林,以及管风琴。文本:第一乐章选用了十世纪赞美诗《来吧,造物圣灵》;第二乐章采用了歌德的诗剧《浮士德》的最后一幕。
No. 09
An impassioned requiem that intricately binds music and silence
《第九交响曲》:音乐和寂静复杂捆绑的
充满激情的安魂曲
Mahler’s Ninth Symphony takes the listener to a world beyond ours.Sir Andrew Davis: ‘It also has in it a lot of sense of struggle of the earlier pieces and actually comes to a conclusion that almost takes one beyond this world. The ending of the piece becomes more and more attenuated, and uses fewer and fewer notes, until the point where as the last notes die away, silence has become inevitable in a way that is very rare in any piece that I know. It’s kind of as though he’s taken us to some world beyond.’马勒的第九交响曲有超越我们世界的听众。安德鲁·戴维斯爵士:“此曲仍然有着早期作品的挣扎感,最终来到一个带人超越世俗的结尾。结尾的音量越来越弱,音符也越来越少,直到最后的音符逝去,寂静不可避免地到来。这种方式,据我所知,非常罕见。就像他把我们带去了另一个世界。”The first movement – considered by many to be Mahler’s greatest achievement in symphonic composition,Disconcertingly placed cellos and horns setting a rhythmic frame (in first movement). Leonard Bernstein once suggested that their halting rhythm reflects the irregular pulse of Mahler’s heart.A jagged and harsh theme at the beginning of the second movement transformed into a melody of tenderly consoling warmth by the trumpet.Sometimes compared to:Tchaikovsky’s Sixth Symphony.第一乐章:被许多人认为是马勒在交响曲中的最高成就。大提琴和圆号令人不安地奏出节奏框架(在第一乐章)。莱奥纳德·伯恩斯坦曾提示过,它们的停顿节奏反映了马勒心脏不规则的跳动。第二乐章伊始,一个参差刺耳的主题由小号转变为一个柔和治愈的温暖旋律。有时会与柴可夫斯基的第六交响曲相比较。
A melancholic reflection on our place within the circle of life
《大地之歌》:我们所处世界的忧郁镜像,有生命的轮回
Set around the text from Chinese poems during the eighth century T’ang dynasty, exploring existential issues of life, death, nature, youth, age and experience.Sir Andrew Davis: ‘[Das Lied von der Erde] has a kind of sense of resignation, of acceptance, that is a characteristic of late Mahler. He looks at all the bitterness and struggle as well as love and the positive things in life, and looks forward. We may not achieve the kind of triumphant conclusion that some of the earlier symphonies do but, in fact, it’s a way of accepting life that is perhaps more realistic, where resignation is tempered with hope.’根据八世纪中国唐朝的诗歌所作,探寻了生命、死亡、自然、青春、年老和经验的存在主义出路。安德鲁·戴维斯爵士:“《大地之歌》有一种顺从、接受的感觉,是马勒晚期的特点。他看着生命中所有的苦涩、挣扎、爱情和积极的事物,并期待着未来。我们也许不能达成他早期交响乐作品那样胜利的结尾,但事实上,这是一种接受生活的方式,可能更加的现实主义。在此,顺从与希望相调和了。”The text was translated into German and it’s noted that sometimes the meaning gets lost in the translation.Six movements (rather than the standard four)Scoring for two voices: extroverted, earthy texts to the tenor, who represents humanity, while the more abstract, pensive poems are sung by the contralto, who embodies the soul中国古诗被译为德文,备注:有时翻译会丢失原意。六个乐章(而不是标准的四个)。着重听两个声部:外向而朴实的男高音演唱的诗句代表了人性,而女低音演唱更抽象的沉思诗篇,是为灵魂的化身。
No. 10
 An intimate description of heaventhrough the innocent eyes of a child
《第十交响曲》:关于解脱和救赎的充满激情的宣言
Incomplete – only the first movement was performable in way that Mahler intended, the rest was complete, but only as a sketch.‘Many people have since tried to finish it but it is generally agreed the version by Deryck Cooke (which the MSO will perform) gets closest to Mahler’s intentions.’ says MSO Orchestra Librarian Alastair McKean.《未完成》中只有第一乐章可按马勒的意图演奏,其余部分虽然完整,但只有草稿。“许多人都尝试过完成此曲,但通常认为德瑞克·库克的版本最接近马勒的原意。”MSO管弦乐队的图书管理员阿拉斯泰尔·麦肯这样说道。Sir Andrew Davis: ‘While the Ninth seems like such a perfect sort of farewell from the great symphonies but the tenth actually goes in to a sort of nightmare world at times that is new. There’s a kind of dissonance about some of the music that looks forward to composers like Schoenberg.’安德鲁·戴维斯爵士:“第九交响曲像是个对那些伟大交响曲的完美告别,第十交响曲却进入了一个噩梦世界,在当时来说很新颖。曲子中有些地方出现了不和谐音,其后的一些作曲家也如此行事,比如勋伯格。”马勒相关译文
超越生命的旅程丨萨洛宁执棒芝交演绎《马勒第九交响曲》他的音乐触及了20世纪的核心丨作曲家们眼中的马勒聆听他的音乐遗言丨马勒《第十交响曲》导赏
巴伦博伊姆谈马勒丨什么是音乐的伟大之处?巴伦博伊姆谈马勒丨“音乐高于一切”马勒《第十交响曲》要听库克续写的!
关于马勒你不可不知的十个真相
马勒《第七交响曲》背后的故事
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 1、采访阿格里奇丨“音乐必须是自然流露的事情!” 2、帕尔曼追忆海菲兹丨“这么多小提琴家都试图模仿他,但他们的演奏却成了活生生的讽刺。” 3、钢琴家迪巴格访谈丨“对于演奏,我仍然负有强烈的义务感。” 4、钢琴家迪巴格访谈丨“我不爱钢琴,我爱的是通过钢琴我能达到的某种东西!” 5、钢琴家迪巴格访谈丨“当音乐会结束后,我就知道我为什么想要这样的生活了,因为它赋予我意义。” 6、王羽佳专访丨她赢得了没有参加的“比赛”!
     7、王羽佳访谈丨“穿长裙?待我四十岁!” 8、十五问王羽佳丨“演出”对你意味着什么? 9、钢琴家特里福诺夫专访丨“我在游泳池里练琴” 10、作曲家亨德尔回答了我几个私人问题 11、八十五岁论阿劳丨他的演奏何以伟大? 12、八十岁时论阿劳丨论阿劳的演奏艺术 13、肖邦大赛访傅聪丨“这个比赛没有完美的玛祖卡。” 14、韩国钢琴家赵成珍访谈丨“如果我遇见肖邦……” 15、憨豆先生采访郎朗丨谈肖邦以及古典音乐普及 
    16、古稀之年克莱默访谈丨谈《克莱默版贝多芬协奏曲》(亨勒出版社) 17、“奥伊斯特拉赫经常鼓励我,去寻找属于自己的声音”丨“当代怪杰”吉顿·克莱默访谈 18、“指挥家”李云迪访谈丨“音乐源自内心,这就是为什么即便我们一遍遍地弹奏相同的曲子,表演依然不是机械化的原因。” 19、郎朗弟子马克西姆·朗多访谈丨“郎朗对所有事物的热情深深感染着我,当我们在一起演奏时,可以感受到创造出的音乐竟然如此欢乐!” 20、肖邦“迷妹”阿格里奇论肖邦《第一钢琴协奏曲》丨“我多么渴望去亲眼看到肖邦怎样弹琴!

《未完成》中章可按马勒图演奏,其余虽然完整,但只有草稿。“许多人都尝试过完成此曲,但通常认为德瑞克·库克的版本最接近马勒的原意。”MSO管弦乐队的图书管理员阿拉斯泰尔·麦肯这样说道。

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