泛读 | 英国需要更多博士学位的芭蕾舞演员?

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Britain’s post-Brexit immigration rules worry business
英国脱欧后的移民规定令企业担忧
Ballerina with a PhD Come on in你是有博士学位的芭蕾舞女演员欢迎欢迎
BRITAIN NEEDSmore ballerinas, biochemists and welders —but only “high integrity pipe welders” with at least three years’ experience. These are among the occupations which appear on the official “shortage occupation list” (SOL), which is central to the government’s planned new immigration rules.
英国需要更多的芭蕾舞演员、生化学家和焊接工,但它只需要有至少三年工作经验的“技艺纯熟的管道焊接工”。这些职业已被列入英国官方的“短缺职业清单”上,这是当局计划中的新移民规定的核心。
The new system will treat migrants equally, regardless of where they hail from. Europeans will no longer benefit from freedom of movement, but the bar to entry from the rest of the world will fall: prospective migrants will require the equivalent of A-levels, not degrees.
新制度将不论出身地平等对待移民,而欧洲人也不再享有自由出入英国的特权。但从世界其他地方进入英国的门槛将有所放宽:未来的移民将只需要高中学历水平,而不再需要达到大学水平。
【拓展理解】
A-levels
General Certificate of Education Advanced Level ,英国高中课程,是英国全民课程体系,是英国普通中等教育证书考试高级水平课程,也是英国学生的大学入学考试课程。
A-Level课程证书被几乎所有英语授课的大学作为招收新生的入学标准。在中国开设A-Level课程旨在为中国学生提供进入国外大学的有效途径,具体目标为:培养在国内初高中成绩优秀的学生进入世界顶尖大学;培养在国内初高中成绩中等的学生进入世界一流大学;培养在国内初高中成绩一般的学生考取适合自己的大学。
The government claims it will let in more talented folks while reducing total numbers. The plan was billed as a “points-based system”, but it is not as flexible as that implies. Most migrants will need to speak English and have a job offer with a prospective salary of more than £25,600 ($33,245).
英国声称其将在减少移民总数的同时招收更多的人才,该计划曾被标榜为“唯分制”,但它并不像其所暗示的那样灵活,因为大多数移民候选人需要会说英语,并有一份年薪超过2.56万英镑(合3.3245万美元)的工作才可移民。
Exceptions to the threshold will only be made for brainiacs withPhDs and those with jobs on theSOL. English-speaking ballerinas with a doctorate are in luck. Firms have welcomed the removal of a cap on migrant numbers, the opening up of routes for skilled workers and the lowering of the £30,000 salary threshold initially mooted.
只有拥有博士学位的天才和在科学领域工作的人才可破格移民,如果是拥有博士学位又会说英语的芭蕾舞演员那就再好不过了。企业对取消移民人数上限、为技术工人开通绿色通道以及降低最初提出的3万英镑的工资门槛表示欢迎。
But they fret about shortages in some industries. The unemployment rate is just 3.8% and there are more than 800,000 unfilled job vacancies in Britain. Firms worry about cutting off the flow of lower-skilled European migrants at a time of what looks like full employment.
但他们担心某些行业会出现人才短缺。虽然英国的失业率只有3.8%,但有80多万个职位空缺。企业担心在这个看似就业饱和的时期,低技能欧洲移民的流动性会被切断。
A recent report by TheUKin a Changing Europe, a think-tank, estimated that the combination of nixing freedom of movement and adopting a relatively liberal scheme for skilled workers would cut overall net migration by only around 35,000, from the current 212,000.
英国智库“变化中的欧洲”最近发布的一份报告估计,取消迁徙自由及对熟练工人采取相对宽松的方案将使净移民总数从目前的21.2万人减少约3.5万人。
Work by the government’s own Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) found that the new rules would slightly reduce overallGDPbut marginally increaseGDPper head.
英国移民咨询委员会的研究发现,新规则将略微降低整体生产总值,但略微增加人均生产总值。
Fewer unskilled workers might put some upward pressure on wages but the minimum wage, which is now the seventh highest out of the 27 members of theOECDthat have minimum wages, has more effect. Those who employ a lot of low-paidEUworkers are troubled.
非技术工人的减少可能会给工资带来一些上行压力,尤其是最低工资。在经合组织27个成员国中,英国的最低工资目前排在第七位,那些雇佣大量低薪欧盟工人的国家则陷入了困境。
TheIPPR, a think-tank, reckons that 66% of the currentEUworkers in health and social care and 85% in hotels and hospitality would be ineligible for visas under the new system. The government hopes to encourage British people back into the labour market to meet the need.
智库IPPR估计,在新制度下,66%的医疗和社会保障领域的欧盟员工和85%的酒店和酒店业员工将没有资格获得签证,所以英国希望鼓励国民回到劳动力市场来满足其需求。
Priti Patel, the home secretary, argues that “we have over 8.45m people in theUKaged between 16 and 64 who are economically inactive”. But most of them are studying, retired, sick or looking after family. Only 1.9m say they want a job. Britain’s farmers are concerned for next year’s harvest.
英国内政大臣帕特尔辩称,“在英国,年龄在16岁至64岁之间没有工作的人数超过了845万”。但他们中的大多数人或学习、或退休、或生病抑或在照顾家人,故只有190万的国民在寻找就业机会,而英国的农民则只关心明年的收成。
Although the government announced that this year’s seasonal worker scheme will be expanded from 2,500 to 10,000 places, no commitment has been given for 2021. Picking soft fruits such as strawberries is tricky to automate.
同时,尽管英国当局宣布今年的季节性工人计划将从2500个扩展到10000个,但并没有给出2021年的相关承诺。毕竟像采摘草莓这类软性水果难以实现真正的自动化。
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